use of refurbished shipping containers for the construction of housing buildings: details for the structural project.

by:ChangZeng     2020-06-29
Introducing the period of recession we are currently experiencing, especially in Europe, which has resulted in a significant reduction in the exchange of goods at sea.
As a result, more containers have been accumulated mainly in the ports of importing countries.
This leads to the problem of space allocation (Pisinger 2002).
This is one of the reasons why the building began to use containers.
In the context of the economic crisis, the construction based on the reuse of container transportation represents a new important market positioning.
The container is designed to carry and withstand very high loads and resist harsh environments for 15 years or more (Nunes 2009).
For example, one of the requirements specified by ISOnorms is that the container should be able to support at least six other containers with maximum load (ISBU 2009).
In the different types of containers that exist on the market, special attention should be paid to containers manufactured in accordance with ISO specifications, which are consistent in terms of mechanical and geometric properties.
In the market, there are several containers of external size.
The most common one has a length of 6. 0, 9. 0, and 12.
Command height of 0 and 2. 4, 2. 55, and 2. 7 m.
The width is generally 2. 4 m.
There are 6 most commonly used containers. 0 and 12. 0 mlong and 2.
7 m high as it provides a larger ceiling height.
Such a container is called HC (High Cube)
The business name is 20\' hc (6.
0 m or 20 feet m long)and 40\'HC (12.
0 m or 40 feetlong).
The main structural components of the container are made of steel.
They combine the ladder metal plates into walls, roofs and profiles to form the \"box\" edges and grids that support the wood floor.
The corners have rigid parts to support the container and allow the connection between the containers.
The door is located on one of the smaller faces.
By using old containers, this building system contributes to recycling and building sustainability (
Vijayalaxmi 2010Lun 2011).
For more than ten years, many countries in the world already have many buildings based on container use (
According to Webb 2006, South Africa, Australia, the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, New Zealand and the United Kingdom; Murdock 2009; Nunes 2009).
Most of these buildings are residential buildings, such
Family and many
A family building, dormitory or dormitory.
Many examples can be found in the architectural literature and on the website.
In addition, buildings with other functions, especially those in the commercial, hotel, tourism, commercial and public sectors, such as offices, corporate offices, artist studios, restaurants, cafes, hotels, apartment hotels, and museums and schools constitute other possible cases of use of this building system.
However, in many countries, namely in Portugal, customers and promoters remain concerned about this new building system.
The transformation process of the container should be carried out in the factory to ensure quality control.
This stage includes all the preparatory work such as disinfection and cleaning, opening, strengthening, connection, surface preparation, painting, and ultimately the implementation of the installation network.
To ensure the success of this phase, the project must include all the necessary details for container preparation so that there is no problem with the construction site during assembly.
In the final stage, the container is transported to the construction site for positioning and connection. 1.
Thematic papers focused on the field of building structures are rarely relevant to the use of refurbished containers.
The existing literature mainly focuses on architecture.
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of this construction system.
This paper focuses on the structural behavior and some elements of civil engineering projects. 2.
Description of 20\' hc and 40\' hc 2 containers. 1.
The following list includes important ISO specifications for ship containers consulted by engineers :--ISO 1496-1:1990--Series 1--
Container transportation.
Specification and testing-
Part 1: Marine application containers in use; --ISO 668:1995--Series 1--
Container transportation.
Classification, size and calculation; --ISO 3874:1997--Series 1--
Container transportation.
Handling and safety; --ISO 830:1999--
Freight container--Vocabulary. 2. 2.
The containers analyzed in this study were designated as 1 aaa and 1 ccc by ISO and also called 20\'hc and 40\' hc by the market (Fig. 1), respectively.
The height of those containers (2. 71 m)
The minimum net ceiling height is 2. 40 m.
This value respects the minimum required by housing building codes in many countries.
Table 1 shows the main features of the container.
As shown in Figure 2, the container is from the front (1)
The face of the door (2), two sides (3), roof (4)
Infrastructure (5).
The container consists of several elements (Fig.
2. Table 2, 3)
Several steel profiles are included to form a steel frame.
The front wall and side wall include a ladder plate (cold formed)
Vertical rib, between 1 thickness. 6 and 2. 0 mm.
Ladder sheets for roof (pressed)with ribs.
The door consists of two leaves and consists of a frame and sheets.
The leaves are connected to the door of the container with two hinges.
Almost all shapes are cold.
The thickness of the steel plate varies between 4. 0 and 6. 0 mm.
Plywood for flooring (Thickness 28mm
Supported by steel nets that make up the infrastructure.
This structure is composed of several beams (BCM)
And two bottom side rails (RDB).
For handling, the container includes an open fork bag (FP).
The front is composed of two ladder pieces (front endwall--few)
By automatic welding joint, a panel welded to a frame consisting of several profiles is formed: the front head (FH)
Steel pipe below (front sill--FS)
Two right angles (FCP)
And Four Corners.
The face of the door consists of a frame including the lower threshold (DS)
With the Channel section, two vertical angular columns (DCP)
Built in hot channel shape
Cold rolled steel and another type of steel
The formed steel is welded together to form a hollow part, a door-to-door head (DH)
Composed of the internal \"U\" and the cold shape of the outside
The formed steel is welded together to form a hollow part, four corner blocks and secondary elements of the door lock device.
Each door fan includes a plate welded to a frame with a positioning device, two hinges, seals and brackets.
Doors are usually removed as secondary elements of the building;
So in this article they are either described in detail or considered as the main structural element.
The side face is composed of steel pipes above (topside rail--TSR)
And side walls (sw)
Consists of several ladder plates connected together by welding.
For 40\' hc model, thickness (external)
Specified by sw1/sw3, and less thick film (internal)by sw2.
For the 20\' hc model, the external and internal drawings are specified by sw1 and sw2, respectively.
The roof consists of pressed steel plates connected by automatic welding.
Once there is no rib near the top side rail, this plate is generally not considered a structural element.
The container also includes many local reinforcement plates.
The joint between several components that make up the container is made by continuous welding.
According to this section, we can conclude that the structure of shipping containers is very complex.
Most elements are made up of profiles with non-commercial parts.
The terms used to specify many elements in this section follow the ISO specification for container vocabulary. 2. 3.
Most of the components of the container are made of steel.
Only SM50YA profile DCP made of steel.
Characteristic values of yield stress ([f. sub. yk])are 343 MPa (Corten A)and 363 MPa(SM50YA). 3.
Evaluation of the main force in the container evaluation of the main force in the container elements in order to apply the standard of the specification (Section 4)
It is done by elastic analysis of container under typical load.
In order to achieve this goal, through the finite element analysis software LUSAS (2010).
Taking into account the position of the steel profile axis, the spatial geometry of the container is defined.
Modeling Linear elements with linear finite element (thick beam)
Linear interpolation is used.
For each element, the geometric properties of the grosssection are introduced.
These properties are calculated manually.
Table 4 shows the most relevant geometric properties of the total section of the element, that is, the area (A)
Moment of inertia ([I. sub. y]and[I. sub. z])
And shear area ([A. sub. sy]and [A. sub. sz])
About axis y and z.
For the direction of the axis, part 1 of European regulation 3-1 (2006)
The convention was used.
Since the section of the unit is very slender and the torsional stiffness is very low, this parameter is considered negligible.
Shear area ([A. sub. sy]and[A. sub. sz])
The line segment that is assigned to that section, ignoring the corner of the socurved (Fig. 3).
Modeling the side plates of the Wall (sw and few)
Quadrilateral plane finite element is used (thick shell)
And thickness (e)
Part of the plate.
However, since the plate is ladder-shaped, it presents a higher rigidity in the vertical direction (
Orthogonal transverse film)
Therefore, in order to simulate the increase of stiffness in such a direction, the basement was added.
Spacing of such elements (Fig. 4)is 30 cm (
Average between the ribs of the sheet).
The sections of these bars are calculated so that the stiffness of the ensemble (
Flat bar)
In the vertical direction is equal to the stiffness of the ladder plate (Table 5).
The cover plate is modeled with a flat finite element because there are no ribs near the bracket (
See Tables 2 and 3).
The equivalent thickness is calculated to ensure the same section area per unit length (2. 17 mm).
Figure 5 illustrates the numerical model implemented with software.
For support conditions, it is assumed that all translations in the four lower corners are limited, as the design of the container is supported by the corner section.
The AYoung modulus of 210 GPa and the Poisson\'s ratio of 0. 30 wereassumed.
Eight boxes (Table 6)
Concentrated and linear.
These cases are intended to simulate loading transmission situations between containers and between these and other structural elements that may exist.
In the case of concentrated load (
Load conditions 1, 3, 5, and 7 as shown in Table 6)
It is intended to simulate the case where the container is connected together only by corner blocks.
Caseswith for linear load (
Load conditions 2, 4, 6, and 8 as shown in Table 6)
To simulate the continuous connection of containers (
Horizontal loading)
Or simulate the vertical reaction of a plate (vertical loads).
Value considered for theloads (Table 6)
Is the reference value.
There is no simulation of the distributed loading situation on the infrastructure, as it has been expected that the floor grid elements will basically behave as beams.
After numerical calculation, the bending moment, axial force and shear force of the finite element are obtained.
For example, Figure 6 shows the results of a load case.
Table 7 shows the universal internal forces calculated for each component of these containers.
The terms used by the force comply with the first part of European regulation 3-3 (2004): axialforces (N, [N. sup. +]or [N. sup. -])Shear force (Vz and Vy)
And moment of bending (Mz and My).
It is observed that the most prominent internal force for most components is the axial force, eventually combined with a moderate bending moment and shear force.
The results show that the container is rigid.
This behavior can be explained by a continuous connection between many elements of the container. 4.
In order to verify the safety of the container structural elements, the structural engineer must follow the structural specifications of the specification structural design.
In this particular case, the European specification 3 should be used for steel structures and European spaces. 4. 1.
European regulation 3 Part 1-section classification of steel components1 (2006)
In order to consider the effect of local flexion on the rotation of section strength and capacity, the section is classified (Class 1-4).
According to Article 5.
Part 1 of European regulation 3-1 (2006)
, This classification is based on the ratio between length and thickness (c/t)
A fully or partially compressed element of an integral part (
Net and flange)
The force in the section (
Shaft force or moment)
And steel structure class.
Table 5 gives the limit value of the c/t ratio.
Part 1 of European regulation 3-1 (2006).
According to the results of Section III (
Most of the components of the container are basically affected by the axial force)
, Considering that all elements that make up the part are in a compressed state, the sections are classified (
Adverse to local flexion).
It is also observed that in addition to the elements BCM1, bcm 3, bcm 4, BSR, FS, FCP, DCP and DCP of TSR model 20\' hc of model 40\' hc, the rest of the cold
The formed contours are classified as 4 categories. Clause 5. 5. 2 (2)
Part 1 of European regulation 3-1 (2006)
It is stated that for these elements, according to the first part of European regulation 3, the reduction in strength due to local flexion effect should be considered by calculating the effective width of the components that make up the section5 (2003)
Non-commercial part (Johnson and others. 2001).
Business cold
Part 1 of European regulation 3-3 (2004)should beused (Davies 2000; Rondal 2000). 4. 2.
The calculation of the effective section depends on the stress distribution, which depends on the force inside.
Based on the simplification adopted in section 4. 1 (
All elements of Section are in compression)
, The calculation of the effective section assumes that the section is composed of a single plate.
The effective geometric properties are calculated by the usual method, ignoring the non-effective areas.
After this, the safety verification of the grade 4 section subjected to normal stress is carried out in the same way as the Grade 3 section (
Part 1 of European regulation 3-1 2006).
According to Clause 4.
Part 1 of European regulation 3-5 (2003)
, Effective area of the plate in compression ,[A. sub. c,eff,]
Exchange area, provided: [A. sub. c,eff]= [[rho]. sub. c]x [A. sub. c], (1)where [[rho]. sub. c]
It is a reduction factor of plate flexion.
For internal elements (webs), [[rho]. sub. c]is given by: [[rho]. sub. c]= 1 for [[bar. [lambda]]. sub. p][
Less than or equal to]0. 673, (2)[
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII](3)
For external elements (flanges), [[rho]. sub. c]is given by: [[rho]. sub. c]= 1 for [[bar. [lambda]]. sub. p][
Less than or equal to]0. 748, (4)[
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII](5)
Coefficient of length and fine ratio of a plate [[bar. [lambda]]. sub. p]isgiven by: [[bar. [lambda]]. sub. p]= [square root of[f. sub. y]/[[sigma]. sub. cr]]= [bar. b]/t/28. 4 x [epsilon][square root of[k. sub. [sigma]]], (6)where [psi]-
Ratio of maximum stress to minimum stress in a plate (Tables 4. 1 and 4.
Part 1 of European regulation 3-5 (2003)); [bar. b]-
The width of the plate, equal to the distance bp between adjacent vertices of the element (Fig. 7); t-Thickness of plate; [k. sub. [sigma]]-
Coefficient of plate Bucklin (Tables 4. 3 and 4.
Part 1 of European regulation 3-5 (2003)); [[sigma]. sub. cr]-
The critical elastic stress of the plate is calculated by the following formula :[[sigma]. sub. cr]= [k. sub. [sigma]]x 189. 800 x [(t/[bar. b]). sup. 2].
Under clause 2. 2 (5)
Part 1 of European regulation 3-5 (2003)
, For the global analysis performed in section 3, when the effective area of element compression is greater than 50% of the total area, the reduction of the section can be ignored ([[rho]. sub. c][
Greater than or equal to]0. 5).
Therefore, it is necessary to check this condition to know if an elastic analysis of the container is performed in Section III (Total area)
Is it valid.
To do this, calculate the validity of all Class 4 elements (
Consider segment compression).
Table 9 shows the validity of all calculations, so comparison analysis can be performed with Tables 2 and 3.
It is observed that, except for FP elements, the area of all elements is less than 50% of the total area.
Therefore, it can be considered that the global results of Section III are still valid.
New geometric properties of the effective section are calculated for checking the safety design (Table 8). 5.
Case studies this section introduces real case studies based on a single case
Structural solutions based on refurbished ship containers (20\' hc and 40\' hc)was studied. 5. 1.
Building Figure 8-
Show some architectural drawings of the building.
The building area of two floors is 115 [m. sup. 2]
[Buildings 0 and 82]m. sup. 2]at Floor 1.
The last part is suspended.
The height is 2.
54 metres on both floors. 5. 2.
After studying some configurations, the selected solution consists of 10 containers, 5 20\' hc models and 5 40\' hc models (Figs 12 and 13).
It should be noted that the structure must be optimized in order to make full use of the container area.
During the preliminary study phase, it was confirmed that the suspension of the first floor containers was incompatible with their resistance, as there were openings on the walls.
This problem is solved by using two external and lateral Truss along the entire length of the container, connected continuously to the container by welding.
These truss are supported by steel columns with Foundation (Fig. 13).
The definition of the geometry of the transverse truss takes into account the considerations of the design of the building, that is, the position and size of the opening. RHSH profiles(Class S355)
Used to combine external truss and steel columns.
The structural coverage of the flat floor is performed by using an adaptive infrastructure of an additional 20 HC containers.
For the first floor, the infrastructure is placed in a vertical direction and supported on the upper string of the truss (Fig. 14).
The container and reinforced profiles are based on reinforced concrete rafts. 5. 3.
The renovation of the container and the renovation process of preparing the container started by removing the door and replacing the original plywood floor.
Next, the opening is made by cutting steel plates and profiles according to the building requirements (
Some examples are given in Table 10.
Through this procedure, the container lost some of its original power.
Therefore, the vertical reinforcement element close to the opening (both sides)were added (Figs 15 and 16).
Strengthen elements using TPS profiles.
For an opening, the total area of the reinforcement element is equal to the area where the single/profile is removed.
Project drawings refurbished and prepared by steel work warehouse are important to ensure that there is no problem with the construction site during container assembly.
This detailed drawing should clearly indicate the position and size of the opening, as well as the position and connection of the reinforcing elements.
Figure 15 and Figure 16 show the preparation drawings for some containers. 5. 4.
Figure 17 shows an overview of the assembled container (
No instructions for external truss).
The container is connected together by welding between some contours and corner blocks.
Figure 18 gives some details of the welding connection, that is, C-sectionC on Floor 1 (Fig. 13)
Displays the connection between the container and the external truss. 5. 5.
A numerical model for evaluating the internal force of a container element, a numerical model (
Based on the assumption of section 3)
Implementation with finite element analysis software (LUSAS)(Fig. 19).
This model includes openings, reinforced profiles, and external truss.
The container of layer 0 is simply supported at the lower corner (
Limit all translations).
Calculate the geometric properties of container elements based on the total Section (Tables 4 and 5).
For FP sections, the effective section area is less than 50% of the total section area (Section 4. 2)
Effective geometric properties are considered (Table 8).
For reinforcement elements (TPS profiles)
And external truss elements (RHSH profiles)
The business part of the choice is based on
Design a simplified model. 5. 6.
The design actions for checking the safety of structural components are: constant load (average values): --own-
Weight of steel structure: 7850 kN /[m. sup. 3]; --own-
Weight of plywood: 0. 70 g/[cm. sup. 3]; --equivalent own-
Partition weight: 1. 1 kN/[m. sup. 2]; --
Outer wall of cladding wall: 5. 4 kN/m; --
Floor and roof coating: 1. 0 kN/[m. sup. 2].
Variable load (
Eigenvalues): --
Live roof (terrace): 2. 0 kN/[m. sup. 2]([[psi]. sub. i]=0); --
Floor living load: 2. 0 kN/[m. sup. 2]([[psi]. sub. 0]= 0. 4; [[psi]. sub. 1]= 0. 3; [[psi]. sub. 2]= 0. 2); --snow: 1. 7 kN/[m. sup. 2]([[psi]. sub. 0]= 0. 6; [[psi]. sub. 1]= 0. 3; [[psi]. sub. 2]= 0); --
Earthquake: dynamic analysis based on seismic load of response spectrum ([[psi]. sub. i]= 0)(Chu et al. 2011).
In order to check the safety of ULS, basic and seismic combinations are applied (Eurocode 2001).
In order to check the deformation
A permanent combination of actions is used (Eurocode 2001). 5. 7.
Standard for checking the final limit state of cold safety
European regulation 3 Part 1-shaped steel profiles3(2004)was used.
Hot business-
European regulation 3 Part 1-rolling steel profiles, procedures1 (2006)were used.
The following limit states were examined: tensile force, compression force, bending moment, shear force, composite bending, internal force and lateral flexion resistance.
Check the section safety of bending moment (
Limit state)
, Due to the eccentricity of the center of gravity, in order to consider local flexion, additional moments are added, as specified in European regulation 3 (2004).
In order to check the ability to resist lateral flexion, it is necessary to calculate the ability to resist flexion (bending moment): [M. sub. b,Rd].
This resistance depends on the elastic critical moment of lateral flexion, which in turn depends on the unknown parameters of many non-commercial sections in the analysis.
In fact, some of these parameters, such as warping inertia, are obtained from experimental studies.
Then, for many profiles that are being studied, it is not easy to check the flexion.
According to Article 6. 3. 2. 1 (2)
Part 1 of European regulation 3-1 (2006)
, Profiles with sufficient lateral support are not susceptible to lateral bending.
Therefore, in order to overcome the above problems, the profile should be supported so that no flexion verification is required.
In fact, for many elements, this condition has been met due to the connection with other elements. 5. 8.
Design resistance and safety verification This section summarizes the verification of components that make up the container only.
For reinforced profiles and profiles that make up external truss, as the current commercial part, verification is based on the first part of European regulation 3-1 (2006).
This verification is not summarized here.
Table 11 summarizes the strength values of profile design based on the total Section (
Configuration files for valid parts are not calculated).
Table 12 summarizes the profile design strength values based on the effective cross section.
Table 13 summarizes the values of the design strength of the drawings.
The front panel presents bending moments around z and axial forces.
Other films are basically axial forces.
A comparative analysis of the internal forces of these combinations of designs (
The number of several values is not given here)
As well as the design advantages of the key parts of the elements that make up the container, several elements that do not verify security can be listed (Table 14).
Main and compound problems-
Bending verification.
It is therefore necessary to provide additional elements of reinforcement (RHSH profiles)
Solve these problems.
Conclusion The conversion of the code program applicable to the current steel structure building structure is possible to verify the safety of the components that make up the container, but due to the lack of some important geometric properties, some validation is not well implemented (
For example, flexion verification).
This problem arises because it is necessary to analyze the cold of non-commercial nature.
Molded steel profiles that are not parameterized for the application code program.
The application of the structural code of this construction system requires several simplified assumptions on the calculation model and verification. In addition, the construction details are adopted in order to impose a behavior on the components, make it closer to a simplified computational model of assumptions.
In addition, the container consists of several steel components.
Most non-commercial sections are classified as Category 4.
For these units, the effect of local flexion must be considered to calculate the effective cross section.
The calculation of the geometric properties of these sections is a long and complex process.
This study shows that structural projects with such building systems are calculated using the resources currently available to structural engineers (
Specification of structure)is not easy.
The necessary calculations, the lack of list values for the geometric features of non-commercial steel profiles that make up the container, and the lack of experience on container structure and local behavior are some negative factors that need to be considered.
In addition, it is worth noting that there are several container models on the market.
However, this study suggests that the feasibility of such a building system based on the renovation of the container building module of the building should be recognized. 10. 3846/13923730. 2013.
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Louis A. BernardoP.
Miguel C OliveiraS.
Jorge M. A.
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, andradbella indoor University, 6201-
Received Covilha 001, Portugal, on May 31, 2011;
Accepted December 142011 Luis F. A. BERNARDO.
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Bella Interior University, Portugal.
He is a member of the C-research center.
Manufacturing: Portuguese Center for Materials and construction technology.
His research interests include the mechanical properties of structural concrete and the development of new structural materials and building systems. Luiz A. P. de OLIVEIRA.
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, home university, Bella, Portugal.
He is a member of the C-research center.
Manufacturing: Portuguese Center for Materials and construction technology.
He\'s a member of cib.
Committee on the administration of building materials.
His research interests include the technology of concrete and masonry structures, especially the flow properties of composite materials and high
Waste of value of materials and components. Miguel C. S. NEPOMUCENO.
Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Bella Interior University, Portugal.
He is a member of the C-research center.
Manufacturing: Portuguese Center for Materials and construction technology.
His research interests include building materials, especially cement-based materials.
His research interests include building physics, indoor environment and building systems. Jorge M. A. ANDRADE.
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Bella Interior University, Portugal.
He is a member of the C-research center.
Manufacturing: Portuguese Center for Materials and construction technology.
His research interests include the behavior of structural elements of steel, aluminum and reinforced concrete, mainly numerical simulation of the problem.
Author: L. F. A. Bernardo E-mail: luis. bernardo@ubi.
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